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The History of Private Placement Programs (PPP)
The Private Platform Programs or High Yield Investment are private programs based on the purchase/sale of bank financial instruments (mainly MTNs). These instruments are bought fresh-cut with a significant discount on their face value to then be resold at a higher price in the secondary market. The difference between the sale price and the purchase price is the trader/investors gain. These programs are offered to clients with high spending power and can only be executed by Traders with a license to carry out such operations. An important part of the returns are destined to humanitarian causes and to the financing of business projects. Therefore, any institution takes precedence on this type of operation. The amount to participate varies on Leverage to PPP programs and M programs.
In the 1990s, the trading in bank instruments was and is presently a multi-trillion dollars industry worldwide. The World’s largest fifteen to twenty-five Holding Companies of North American and European Banks are authorized to issue blocks of debt instruments such as medium term notes, debenture instruments, and standby letters of credit at the behest of the United States Treasury for the United States Treasury Trust and Foundations and the United States Federal Reserve. The Instruments issued are backed by a Treasury undertaking.
The genesis of this marketplace was the 1945 Bretton Woods Conference of world’s leaders. The principles originally championed as answers to post World War II economic stability are still the impetus for the operation of these transactions today These transactions started some fifty years ago, have grown and been continuously modified, and as described in this article are Private Placement U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve investment transactions administered by select Western Banks. A short historical summary will help to understand the origin of these transactions and the reasons why the Treasury backed, private bank instrument marketplace has remained strong and viable notwithstanding the great social, political and economic changes the world has experienced during the last half century.
With World War II having come to a close, the leading political and economic authorities of the world met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire. Their purpose was to formulate a common plan to rebuild the war’s massive devastation and to impose global restraints upon forces which had twice led to world chaos during the first half of the Twentieth Century and left economic collapse in its wake.
To accomplish this goal, these leaders sought to empower universally recognized international institutions capable of effectuating and preserving political order and capable of encouraging and facilitating world economic trade and cooperation. The Worlds leading economists advocated the establishment of an international banking system which administered a universally accepted “currency”. It was believed that a centralized world authority, and a standard world currency, with fixed exchange rates among the various currencies of the world was the formula for the stimulation of universal economic growth and the maintenance of economic balance and stability though the economies of the world.
John Maynard Keyes urged the adoption of a standard currency. The political realities of Nation State’s autonomy, however, inevitably precluded the adoption of a uniform currency. As an alternative, the international Leaders resolved to adopt the United States Dollar as the standard world currency for international trade. It was gold backed and the most stable currency. This adoption of the United States Dollar as the world’s standard currency for international trade was the milestone which triggered the development of the bank instrument marketplace. The Bretton WoodsConference gave birth to the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the Bank of International Settlements (BIS).
The World Bank was structured to function in a manner consistent with traditional commercial banks. It was created to act as lender to the poorer and less developed countries. Funding for the World Bank came from the assessment of the more industrialized countries. Today, it takes deposits from more than 140 member Governments and lends to the lesser developed countries in need of international capital.
The International Monetary Fund was created to work in conjunction with the World Bank. While the defined role of the IMF has been adjusted through the years, its basic purpose has remained the same: administer global economic stability and political harmony through targeted lending to member countries to facilitate growth, to maintain relative stability among the various world currencies and to avoid collapse in times of crisis.
Most of the world’s economies experienced great post World War II expansion. With this expansion came increased international trade and the need for more and more United States Dollars to accommodate this growth. In permitting the U.S. Dollar to be adopted as the world’s standard currency, the role of the United States Treasury and the United States Federal Reserve expanded.
To protect the dollar’s value while increasing the dollar’s availability, the Treasury commenced to work with the World Bank, the IME, the BIS and through the Federal Reserve, and the largest Western European Banks. They developed a system of issuing uniform financial bank instruments in U. S. Dollar denominations m accordance with the new and universally accepted financial standards. In doing so these U.S. Agencies and International Institutions merely incorporated the existing basic operating procedures of the major Western European Banks,
The United States banks manage their asset liability by offsetting short term deposits against long term loans while Western European banks fund their customers’ long term borrowing needs through the issuance of various bank financial instruments including Medium Term Notes and Letters of Credit. A plan was enacted to permit the Western European Banks to issue financial instruments in United States Dollar denominations pursuant to the expressed authority of the U. S. Treasury through the U.S. Federal Reserve. In enacting this system, the Treasury/Federal Reserve authorized the Western European Banks to capture the expatriated U.S. Dollars from the world marketplace and with the new credit created, issue these ‘new” Dollars into circulation in specific geographical locations where investment was needed, over the controlled life of the instrument. The implementation of this system following the Bretton Woods Conference provided a means for the U.S. Treasury and Federal Reserve to control the rate and volume and placement location of the U.S. Dollars being introduced into the global marketplace.
In its attempt to further solidify the universal acceptance of the U.S. Dollar as the standard world currency, the Bretton Woods Conference had fixed the price of Gold backing the U.S. Dollar at $35.00 and ounce. During the 1950s and the 1960s the price of gold in the open market had increased to a price nearly ten times that amount. The need to back the U.S. Dollar with gold valued at $35.00 and ounce while simultaneously providing sufficient U.S. Dollars to accommodate the increased needs of the international marketplace created significant stress on the United States Monetary system. The United States did not have enough gold to continue issuing the dollars necessary to continue to support international economic expansion.
On August 15, 1971, facing a threatened speculative run on the U, S. gold reserves, President Richard Nixon renounced America’s promise to convert paper dollars into gold upon demand. With this executive proclamation the United States abandoned the gold standard. In the absence of the gold backed standard currency the idea of fixed exchange rates among all currencies of the world became passe, and by 1973 the IMF., The World Bank and the Bank of International Settlements had abandoned the idea of fixed exchanged rates.
Within the territorial limits of the United States the U.S. Federal Reserve exerts influence upon the domestic economic trends by the regulation of domestic bank reserve requirements and the adjustment of the Federal Discount Rate. While these may be internally effective tools, they are inadequate to provide the international control demand in the global marketplace. The United States Treasury expanded the roll of the Federal Reserve System to monitor the International markets separate and apart from domestic duties. In implementing the International System of world order, the United States Treasury through the Federal Reserve has the largest World Banks issue bank financial instruments in significant U. S. Dollar denomination. As these instruments are issued and sold the U. S. Dollars extracted from circulation and the new credit created in exchange for the new bank instruments, control over the Global U. S. Dollar money supply is effected. These transactions are meaningful because the bank instruments are of such significant dollar amounts that the effect of these sales will have a direct impact upon the volume of the U. S. Dollar in circulation within a particular local economic system. Once the Federal Reserve has collected in the Dollars they can be reinserted into targeted segments of the global economy in accordance with the United States Treasury and the G-8 Nations determined policies.
The same system is the foundation wherein the IMF discretely attempts to maintain world order. As economic, political and social factors alter the relationships of the Nations of the World, the IMF is equipped to respond through the power of responsible administration of financial aid. Loans may be granted to member countries to fund various individual projects which are beneficial to its citizens and mankind in general. Should a Central Bank of an individual country run into a deficit in its balance of payments, the IMF is able to supply short term financing to a member country. Functioning in this manner, the IMP can interject an immediate fix to the short term instability of an individual county white at the same time avoiding calamitous consequences to the other nations with whom the unstable country may have contracts.
A review of past events reveal the extent of the IMF’s role as: The force behind the bailout of Mexico, the 10 Billion dollar loan commitment to Russia, the attempts to bring stability to Africa and to undermine the oppressive authority of African Overlords, the industrial development of Eastern Europe, the reconstruction of Bosnia, and the development of free markets in South America.
However, these targeted loans come with definite strings attached. The funding of such loans maybe conditioned upon the country’s demonstrating to the World Bank or the IMF officials that it has reduced it’s inflation rate, reduced it’s import tariffs and opened it’s markets to external forces, ceased destroying it’s rain forest, terminated policies inconsistent with basic human rights, taken steps to eliminate corruption, cut internal spending in certain areas, adjusted objectionable internal policies and is acting in accordance with universally recognized concepts of human dignity.
By the sale of Bank Instruments the IMF is able to promptly respond to issues in a targeted fashion. This system avoids the need to submit requests to the various member counties for the use of politically budgeted funds and avoids the parochial, partisan, political processes of the parliaments of various Nation States.
The Bank of International Settlements ( BIS) is a little known private institution based in Basel, Switzerland. It also performs a critical function in the preservation of order in the global monetary system Control of this institution is actually vested in private individuals. Not governmental officials. The principal functionaries are the Private Central Bankers from the world’s industrialized countries. Like the IMF, the Bank of International Settlements functions in the nature of a world economic security net and clearing house. It is capable of moving billions of dollars from one country to another to expeditiously correct potentially disruptive financial imbalances between countries, and to effectuate the prompt administration of financial first aid to individual Nations and financial institutions in major crisis situations. The BIS also helps maintain the relative stability of the world currencies as well as the global system as a whole.
The Medium Term Notes are issued by the largest World Banks at the instructions and authority of the U.S. Treasury directly or through the Federal Reserve and distributed through the largest banks through a well established private marketing system. This marketing system of Private Treasury Trading Trusts,Foundations and Federal Reserve Accounts, exclusively market these instruments and these accounts are administered by the participating bank. The proceeds generated by the sale of these instruments are retained by the U.S. Treasury or the Federal Reserve and reintroduced into the market place when deemed appropriate These funds may be used to fund loans made by the INIF to it’s member countries. By funding specific projects , the INIF can monitor the proceeds and certify that the funds are being used as agreed.
These Private Trading Entities regularly purchase these instruments on the initial issue or Primary market and the pricing is at a negotiated discount. The instruments are immediately sold to a well defined private and discrete market at the market rate or at secondary market prices. This new profit is new credit created that can be used for financing of U. S. Treasury registered and Approved Projects. As indicated in the Federal Reserve Bulletin, Anatomy of the Medium Term Note market,” August, 1993 page 765, these transactions involve “riskless principal” as all of the instruments bought are sold prior to purchase.
In the Private Placement Program transactions, trading is conducted on the strength of the U.S. Treasury Department Approval of the holder of the funds after they have been shown to be good, clean and of non criminal in origin. It is the value of the funds as evidenced to the Treasury Trust or Foundations, or the Federal Reserve, not the funds themselves that finance the purchase of the instruments by the participating Private Placement Transaction.
In the event that the instruments have been issued for a World Bank or IMF project, the funds are generated by the sale of the instruments by the Private Transaction Accounts and are available for use in funding the loan commitments made by IMF or other such international agency. The instruments are commonly five hundred million dollar notes with a ten year maturity bearing interest of seven and one half percent, back by a Treasury Instrument of like terms, and purchased at a discount and resold to major institutions at the market rates.
Through the implementation of this system the U. S. Treasury and the Federal Reserve cause dollars to be moved from one country to another in a fashion consistent with the economic and political policies of the G-8 + Nations, the United States Government, The World bank, The IMF and the United Nations. In so doing the participants are able to effect foreign aid and the IMF is able to significantly fund their commitments without resorting to individual assistance from the treasuries of its member states.
The Private Transaction Accounts operate with a profit motivation and they may have Private Placement Participation from private individuals and other private entities which must be screened and cleared by the administering agencies. The Investment Manager Limited, provides private individuals and other private entities access to this market in the form of accepting deposits of Private Placement Funds. Entry requires The Investment Manager Limited to obtain a clearance and Approval of the Depositor, from the United States Treasury Department/Federal Reserve for each Private Placement Deposit. This process may be initiated by submitting necessary documentation including proof of good, clear clean funds on non criminal origin together with the appropriate bank documentation. (The format of necessary documentation is available upon request).
The United States Treasury rules are applicable to all banks who have administration and distribution arrangements with the Treasury to do this business in U.S. Dollar denominations. Recent enactment’s by the U.S. Treasury have extended the application of these rules to all participating foreign banks issuing instruments in U. S Dollars as well as all domestic banks. Some of the limitations include: type of capital banks may use for such activities, the manner in which participating capital may be procured, the manner in which the profits can be divided and accounted for, and to whom and under what circumstances of this activity can be made.
The form of security offered to participants in the Private Placement Transaction will be assignable Deposit Receipts from the Custody Safekeeping Accounts of The Investment Manager Limited that hold the Private Placement Deposit. The Custody Safe Keeping Account will hold the cash deposit or securities equal to or of greater value than the original Deposit.
The Treasury rules have a broad impact upon the nature and scope of all banks activities. Banks are precluded from using funds held on deposit within the institution for use in these transactions. The rules require that the participant be the legal owner of the funds and banks are prevented from soliciting clients and funds for participation in a trading transactions.
As a consequence of these restrictions and m response to the continual need for capital to initiate and complete Approved Projects, these transactions are established in a discreet, PrivatePlacement Program Transaction which function as the Private Placement Transactions. To participate with a Private Placement Transactions the clearance of the participant and the depositors funds by an authorized representative of the United States Treasury is essential. After the funds have been screened as good, clean, of non-criminal origin, and U. S. Treasury approval has been procured, the participant is in a position to place the funds in a Custody Safe Keeping Account or Corporate Account, at a nominated World Bank acceptable to the Depositor and The Investment Manager Limited.
The Treasury Approval is significant as it represents that the funds are clear and the approval is extended to the established Bank Account and authorized by the Treasury rules, it represents that disclosure about the details of the transaction my take place, it represents that the earnings on the deposited funds are legally exempt from the limits imposed upon banks pay out restrictions set by the U. S. Federal Reserve discount rate limitations, and it means that the bank may deliver to the Established Bank Account an Assignable Depository Receipt as security for the deposited funds.
A commonly offered security is that of a Deposit Receipt or an Assignment for the deposit hinds which is issued by the Established Bank Account of The Investment Manager limited through the Administering Bank, The Safekeeping Receipt or Assignment, is accompanied by limiting instructions in which the Administering Bank agrees to maintain a level of funds equal to the funds deposited or “A+” rated Bank or U. S. Treasury instruments equal or greater to the total of the deposited funds.
The Investment Manager Limited commits the value of the funds in the Custody Safe Keeping Account to a Treasury Trust or Treasury Foundation Transaction Account, who administers ad of the trading that creates new credit for the financing of Approved Projects. New credit is created and generated by the repeated use of the value of the funds deposited to finance successive buy and sell transactions in the Treasury Transaction Accounts.
In February 1997, The Treasury Department issued new rules for the distribution of the new created credit and these rules are regularly being updated and amended. The I]. S. Treasury Department enforces all of theft rules to insure compliance with their directives. This process is closely regulated through U. S. Treasury Compliance Officers who are assigned to audit the business activities of the various participants.
PRIVATE PLACEMENT PROGRAM TRANSACTIONS
All of the above speaks to the movement of US Dollars from one location to another for their application and uses in areas of need. The US Treasury also makes the Bank Instruments of 7.5 percent interest, term ten years, available to Project Managers to see that Projects are completed in those areas of need. The US Treasury and the Federal Reserve from time to time, for Approved Projects and for Approved Depositors who have funds that the owner will make available to enter into an atmosphere of a Bank Secure Transaction, wherein approved Bank Trading Accounts are established, the Bank Instruments will be purchased directly from the Treasury nominated and appointed Syndicate of Major Western Banks through the Treasury approved Trading Account. In the account we established for the trading purpose, the Treasury makes the Bank Instruments available to this account at a discount to the Open Market. When these Instruments are purchased and then sold at market rates the profit is new credit that is then used to finance the Approved Projects. In this transaction the dollars are accumulated in a Geographical Area where there are an excess of US Dollars and moved to a location of approved projects to he invested therein.
In this business one of the main considerations is, at the end of the term of the ten years when the 7.5% interest, ten year term instruments come due, they are paid at the fill face value of 100 percent. Repaying the discount “new credit” and the interest paid for ten years thereon. These instruments are the responsibility of the US Treasury and hence the American People. Therefore you will subject to Treasury Compliance Officers monitoring in these transactions at various times and places.
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JL Thomas Consulting
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